The design contest for the layout and building types of the Kispest workers’ houses
30 applications were received for the division, setting and planning of the houses. Out of these 30, 12 were location designs and 18 were house type designs. The President of the jury was Alajos Hauszmann. In the location design category, the 1st prize was awarded to Antal Palóczi, the 2nd prize to Róbert Fleischl and the 3rd prize went to Henrik Kotál. The Committee considered the tender for the house designs to be more successful. The 3rd prize winners Lajos Schodits and Béla Éberling were judged to have had the most attractive buildings, however, they were not deemed to be economical enough. As a result, the 1st prize went to Róbert Fleischl (15 house types) and the 2nd prize was awarded to Anta lPalóczi (26 house types). More applicants were entrusted with designing the types of buildings (Aladár Árkay, Géza Kallina, István Bierbauer, Géza Fiala, Loránd Lechner, Dezső Vásárhelyi, György Tichtl, Gyula Wälder), and in this way the estate’s picturesque streets were created with more than 40 unique designs and house plans.
The English example
Ebenezer Howard (1850–1928), who was an English parliamentary clerk, heard many questions regarding the seemingly unsolvable housing situation in his homeland. He showed a great interest regarding the topic. In 1898 he initiated the core idea of the Garden City Movement.
At this time, when crowded industrial cities with poor air quality were a developing feature at the end of the 19th century, Howard was close to finding a solution to the problems of city life. In his view, the ideal city had wide streets, parking areas and housing communities. Schools, churches and recreational amenities would be found in the inner green area, while homes with small gardens would line the avenues and boulevards. The outer ring would house the shops and industrial area which would be connected to the railway system in the most efficient possible way. The point was to create a new city model, in which supplies, transportation, services, education and a certain order were present. The basis of this concept, is a self-sustaining garden city which combines the advantages of city life, the existence of the countryside, while representing a community.
The movement quickly went global. In 1899, he founded the Garden City Association with the intent to further discuss their ideas and to provide a means for the ideas to become widespread. The notion of organising and building the first garden city was created here. There was an economic foundation to the enterprise, where the increase in the value of the property benefitted the population. The profit was maximized and reinvested in the enterprise. This settlement model was based on a totally new economic foundation, which would have initiated the renewal of cities.